Style Sheet for Articles

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A. Abstract

Before the beginning of the article, there should be an abstract which is to be written in English. Its maximum length will be 1000 characters. The abstract should not be divided into paragraphs and should not contain indented quotations. Please do neither use footnotes not key words in the abstract.

B. Main Text

1. General

Do not use automatic hyphenation, and in all cases avoid manual hyphenation at ends of lines. When referring to centuries, avoid superior script (19th century), but use instead one of the following options: 19th century, nineteenth century. There are no spaces between initials: D.H. Lawrence.

2. Division of the Text

Division is recommended through numbered subtitles. New paragraphs begin on a new line and are indented (one tab stop) from the margin. After chapter headings and indented quotations, new paragraphs are not indented.

3. Quotations

References for quotations must be given parenthetically within the text; do not use footnotes to provide references. Omissions within quoted passages are to be indicated by square brackets […]. Please make sure to use typographical inverted commas (“ ”, ‘ ’, instead of ” ”, ‘ ‘) throughout the article. These are placed above the words (in all languages).

a. Prose quotations: Short quotes (up to two lines long) will appear within the prose texts and should be indicated by double inverted commas. Quotes within a quote are distinguished by single inverted commas.

Full stops and commas are generally to be placed before the closing quotation mark. All other punctuation marks are placed after the closing quotation mark (i.e. “American quotation style,” which also applies if the text should be written in British English). If the quotation is followed by parenthetical documentation, however, full stops and commas are placed after the closing bracket.

b. Indented quotes: Quotes with three or more lines are indented from the left margin and do not have inverted commas. Parenthetical documentation is given after the last punctuation mark in the quote. There is no punctuation after the brackets.

c. Page references appear without the abbreviation “p.” (pages) or “S.” (Seite). To provide page spans, do not use abbreviations like “f.” or “ff.”, but provide both the first and last page number: (23-25).

4. Emphasis on Single Words or Parts of a Sentence

Where possible, the style of the text should indicate emphasis. Only as an exception should typographical methods be used. Typographical emphases are indicated by the use of italics in standard texts and vice versa. Bold print, underlining and spaced out type are not accepted as a form of emphasis. Technical terms should appear in italics if they are not in common use in English (lingua franca, style indirect libre). Words that have a special meaning, for example those that are used ironically, should appear in single inverted commas. For italics in quotes, see section D.

C. Footnotes

Footnotes should be used to comment on or give additional information to the main text. They must not function as references for the source texts. If the additional information  or comment given in the footnote itself requires a reference, please use the parenthetical system (see D). Footnotes are numbered consecutively throughout the entire article. The ‘superior’ or ‘superior script’ footnote numbers within the text are typed after all punctuation marks – except the dash. Punctuation of a footnote is as for a normal sentence, that is, begins with a capital letter and ends in a full stop etc.

D. Parenthetical Documentation

As a rule, ZAA employs a shortened form for referring to sources using parentheses within the prose text. The full bibliographical details should be placed at the end of the article as a list of ‘Works Cited’ (see E).
The parenthetical documentation includes the author’s last name, the year of publication, and the page number after a comma: (Esslin 1987, 22-23), (Adam and Tiffin 1991, 55). The full parenthetical documentation is always given, even if the author should be already named in the text.
If two or more authors with the same last name are quoted, initials are included as a distinctive marker: (M. Esslin 1987, 4). If two or more publications by one author are published in the same year, use small letters attached to the date of publication both in the parenthetical documentation and the list of Works Cited for distinction: (Esslin 1987a, 4).
If the source has no pagination, as for example in the case of some electronic sources, this is indicated in the parenthetical documentation: (Silverman 2011, n.pag.). If the date is not given, this is also indicated: (Silverman n.d., n.pag.).

If the quote preceding the parenthetical documentation features italics as emphasis (see section B.4), please indicate whether they can be found in the original quote (Esslin 1987, 22; original emphasis) or if they were added by you (Esslin 1987, 22; emphasis added).

E. Works Cited (Literaturverzeichnis)

As the title ‘Works Cited’ implies, do only provide bibliographical data for items that are explicitly used in your argument. Do not add additional sources. Please use English spelling (“and”) and abbreviations (“ed.,” “eds.,” “trans.,” “vol.,” etc.) even if you quote sources written in other languages. Please do not use “UP” or “U of P” as abbreviations for University Presses.
Please note: US-American publications are specified by an abbreviation of the US state after the city: Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 73-76.